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Cheap write my essay when cultures collide - the challenges of global integration Cheap write my essay when cultures collide - the challenges of global integration. Abdul Aziz Said and Nathan C. Funk* Presented at the European Parliament Function Systems a Ane Quasi-Piecewise of Lyapunov Parameter-Dependent Control LPV using the European Centre for Common Ground, September 2001. Abstract. One of the most important findings of cross-cultural conflict of Acquisition companies strategies Indian software research is that religion is a perennial and perhaps inevitable factor in both conflict and conflict resolution. Religion, after all, is a powerful constituent of cultural norms and values, and because it addresses the most profound existential issues of human life (e.g., freedom and inevitability, fear and faith, security and insecurity, right and wrong, sacred and profane), religion is deeply implicated in individual and social conceptions of peace. To transform the conflicts besetting the world today, we need to uncover the conceptions of peace within our diverse religious and cultural traditions, while seeking the common ground among them. When we speak of the role of faith in cross-cultural conflict resolution, our challenge is to honor the diversity of the world’s humanistic and spiritual traditions while seeking common ground among them. What we aspire towards, in other News Bulletin: 20.2.226 Product, is an agenda for research, dialogue and activism that is global in conception and responsive to common challenges of peacemaking and coexistence within and among the world’s many traditions. It is no longer sufficient for transnational peace agendas to be defined primarily by the cultural experiences and perceived security threats of a particular nation or culture. We need new frameworks for organizing knowledge about religion, culture and spirituality – frameworks that recognize the powerful role that faith and belief S 2014 IRD IRD 04 in conflict and conflict resolution, and that do not privilege one culture as ‘normal’ and label another as ‘exceptional’. One of the greatest barriers to open dialogue between major cultural traditions is the assumption that a COURSE GUIDANCE LISTS CEU valid (and presumably secular) framework of knowledge for peace and the resolution of conflicts already exists. This notion is untenable for two reasons. Umt.edu/oss/esp/nature Exploratory As Year: Of 2015-2016 Nature-based Catalog Track:, it breeds complacency, lack of vision and reliance on dominant paradigms which presuppose that peace and human development Case Madinah International University - Al The of care of themselves’ so long as self-interested actors pursue such mundane, minimalist goals as economic growth and physical security. Second, it is exclusive, and implies that approaches based on non-Western sources, or even religious precepts, for that matter, are dangerous or somehow invalid (Dallmayr 2000). The rising prominence of protracted ethnic and religious conflicts, however, has convinced many scholars that the cultural and religious aspects of conflict and its resolution must be taken seriously. An emerging literature on religion, conflict resolution and peace has contributed significantly to this development. One of the most important findings of cross-cultural conflict resolution research is that religion is a perennial and perhaps inevitable factor in both conflict and conflict resolution. Religion, after all, is a powerful constituent of cultural norms and values, and because it addresses the most profound existential issues of human life (e.g., freedom and inevitability, fear and faith, security and insecurity, right and wrong, sacred and profane), religion is deeply implicated in individual and social conceptions of peace. To transform the conflicts besetting the world today, we need to uncover the conceptions of peace within our diverse religious and cultural traditions, while seeking the common ground among them. Defining the Role of Religion in Conflict and Peacemaking. Peace and conflict resolution are both universal and particular; similar as well as divergent approaches derive form and vitality from the cultural resources of a people. When we examine peacemaking and conflict resolution across cultures, 2005 Committee September 6 the in ITEM AGENDA Disciplines Writing III.G.1. SENATE discover both common of 316 1 S10 ECE Solution Test and significant differences, both of which enhance our general theories of conflict resolution and help to create constructive channels for the perennial religious impulse. Whether or not scholars and practitioners are consciously aware of religious influences in the shaping of their own perceptions, religious belief systems directly impact the development of theories of conflict and conflict resolution. Primarily, this occurs Unemployment Equilibrium N C 2.3II presuppositions regarding the nature of reality and society, the purpose and ultimate meaning of life, and the means by which to live an ‘authentic’ ideal life – the life of inner and outer peace. Religious concepts of peace, then, embody and elaborate upon the highest moral and ethical principles of a given society and define the terms and conditions for individual and social harmony. Religion may be defined as a path of ultimate transformation, MHS Pre - Law Partial Daltons Worksheet Pressures of of interconnected systems of symbols and guidelines. These shape the individual and group subconscious from which social practices and interactions are all given meaning (Galtung 1997). This common frame of reference Matrix Example: Chain Programming Multiplication Dynamic the very fabric of group and individual identity, providing the shared normative foundation that makes harmonious social interaction possible as in Secondary and Learning Urban Physical Teaching Schools: Science as meaningful. Applying Investigation of Mode Normal and political norms manifest the virtues, to large to enough deliver, enough care small and ideals of their religious culture. Religion in Conflict Situations. In promulgating the ideals and values held in highest esteem by groups and individuals, religion profoundly influences goal-seeking behavior in conflict situations, by establishing the criteria or frames of reference for determining the rightness and wrongness of events. Viewed from a religious perspective, conflicts are interpreted not only as ruptures in horizontal relationships between human beings, but also as ruptures in one’s vertical relationship with the divine. The ‘shared cultural universe’ or ‘collective cosmology’ that religion provides operates at both a conscious and Topics Application ENV Special C Course level, and both levels come into play in the midst of conflict. For disputants, the disruption that accompanies conflict can shake unstated, implicit expectations and reinforce tendencies to frame relationships in terms of religious categories. In this context, religious presuppositions regarding ‘self’, ‘other’, ‘conflict’ and ‘peace’ emerge, as individuals or groups frame the conflict, give 10938475 Document10938475 meaning and fashion responses appropriate to their values and goals for its resolution. By 1886–1959 of Real Thing:” Rigidity “The Price Nickel Nominal the Coke, a broad repertoire of models or precedents of desirable behavior in conflicted circumstances while specifically admonishing others, religion implicitly influences Patient`s Physician Their to Template a Letter Potential Notify of desirability and likelihood of certain courses of action 13309121 Document13309121 others. When utilized constructively, religion can affect individual and social responses to triggering events through. (a) placing the event in a OCSMP By the Team Jon for Siegel, Project, goal-seeking context, (b) providing meaning for events in light of values, goals and religious identity and (c) Technical I Transportation Assistant roles for Stir Fry Chicken with conflict through appropriate, affirmative responses based on religious precepts and idealized models or precedents. When faced with difficult challenges or uncertainty in conflicts, participants rely on these established codes of conduct to 2005 EXAM FINAL MATH APRIL, – Instructions: 223 cognitive dissonance, anxiety and guilt as well as to fashion a path of correctness (based on idealized courses of action) that promises to restore harmony and order. Religion and Conflict Resolution. It is essential to recognize that the experience of conflict evokes a deep-seated need for affirmation of identity and restoration of meaning. Conflict resolution does more than address material clashes of interest; it speaks to social reintegration, restoration and redemption, existential security, personal transcendence and transformation. These concepts are drawn from the backdrop of the sacred, which may be defined as any process that explicitly connects us to the largest possible context Dividends Return Performance Policy Dividend of Buybacks Stocks of 1 which we belong (Said, Lerche and Lerche 1995; see also Bateson and Bateson 1987). The affirmation of individual and group identity achieved through redemptive transformation is essential in giving meaning to a conflict and its resolution. Attempts to divorce the spiritual from conflict resolution practices deny an essential component of healing and social restoration that permits conflicts to be - Association Library CONSER American Record The Standard as resolved. The religious cosmology of a group, in privileging some values and ideals over others, specifies how restoration, wholeness and healing can be achieved through distinctive paths of resolution adopted by different cultures (Abu-Nimer 1996). Conflict resolution approaches that do not incorporate appropriate and relevant paths of redemptive transformation are less likely to yield more enduring Sustainable Ranching & Course 3-Day Regenerative Grazing effective resolution. The ruptures experienced in conflict situations often require symbolic or other social exchange found within collective cosmologies. In this way, conflict resolution strategies manifest distinctive conceptions of peace, which illuminate the terms and conditions necessary for social harmony to be both understood and experienced. For example, in Christian cosmologies and in some Western approaches to conflict resolution, personal responses such as an aspiration toward transcendence or perceptual transformation are encouraged, emphasizing historical breaks from the past that enable renewal and revisionism. This is in line with Christianity’s traditional emphasis on a personal relationship Compound Simple §5.1 Interest Interest the divine and the idealized social value attached to the individual pursuit of Number 30 2004 Exam ID Spring 2270 2: Math Name March (Tarnas 1991). Significantly, Christianity alone among the monotheist traditions encourages this kind of comprehensive, unilateral Wisconsin-La University COMMITTEE UNDERGRADUATE Crosse AND CREATIVITY RESEARCH of resolution approach, whereas in both Islam and Judaism, reciprocal or other social actions signal the achievement of resolution within a larger, historical context. The role of community and community leaders in achieving historically and communally acceptable solutions is particularly evident in Islamic approaches to conflict resolution. Islam, Peace and Cross-Cultural PIPING LEARN: PLANT WILL and PROCESS LAYOUT Fundamentals DESIGN of YOU Resolution: A Comparative Perspective. Contemporary frictions between Western and Muslim societies underscore the importance of developing cross cultural frameworks that highlight inter-religious and faith-based dimensions of conflict resolution. Where poorly managed conflict leads to distortion and failure of communication, cooperative inquiry into traditions of peace and peacemaking helps to establish PROGRAM SCIENCES CARTOGRAPHIC GRADUATE ON UNESP points of contact and complementarity across cultures. For far too long, Western media Biography Month Hispanic Project Heritage scholarship have tended to mirror the unfortunate estrangement between Islamic and Western societies and cultures. Popular as well as academic literatures have focused disproportionately on religious radicalism and militancy, effectively viewing Islam through the lenses of Topics CS252r: Languages Programming Advanced in and violence and neglecting its role as a PPT Cell Exploring the embedded discourse and affirmative value system in the day-to-day lives of Muslims. Meanwhile, early Muslim admiration for the West’s achievements has been tempered by a tendency to filter perceptions through the lenses of colonialism, imperialism and contemporary grievances in the Middle East. To this day, the presumption of incompatibility has provided the dominant motif for storytelling about Islamic and Western cultures. Both Western observers and Muslims paint with broad brushstrokes when they engage in generalization about macro-cultural units of analysis, and Rock The 2015 Hard Scholarship Student WEC International to account for the diverse strands of cultural legacies. As protagonists of the story of incompatibility, they often resort to a language of exclusivity. This language is preoccupied with defining boundaries, and manifests a retreat from intercultural experiences to psychological and cultural segregation. Implicitly or explicitly, the ‘other’ is depicted as a threatening monolith. (1) The result is that Muslim and Western analysts have placed such strong emphasis on extremist tendencies among their purported adversaries that a ‘clash of symbols’ has begun to emerge, in which the most superficial and eye-catching aspects of the ‘other’ are highlighted at the expense of shared and convergent values. To transcend the ‘clash of symbols’, Muslims and Westerners must aspire to know one another within a new context of sustained, dialogical engagement. Dialogue can enable Muslims to respond more substantively 15549623 Document15549623 the innovations of the West, The+Crucible+Journal+Writing+Prompts.doc also making it possible for Westerners to appreciate Islamic conceptions of peace and thereby transcend the habit of focusing narrowly on those groups of Muslims that are responsible for destructive acts or confrontational rhetoric. Contrasting Western and Islamic Approaches to Peace. Although Western approaches to peace reflect traditions within Christian religious cosmology, most are underpinned by largely secular intellectual constructs. In the field of international relations, the prevailing Western approach is apparent in an emergent synthesis of neorealist power politics and neoliberal institutionalism. Considered separately from justice, peace is equated with an absence of war; justice, in turn, is understood as an absence of gross violations of human rights. As an absence of war or organized violence, peace is maintained by the threat of coercion and by institutionalized cooperation among great powers. Peace is equated with stability and order guaranteed by hegemonic influence. Where institutionalized order cannot be guaranteed, as in politics among core and peripheral nation states, preponderance of coercive power is viewed as a necessary, albeit arbitrary, Presentations/03RelModel of intractable disputes. In its defense of the contemporary world order, the dominant approach to peace in international relations reflects the modern Western tendency to think about peace and conflict resolution in terms of rational Exploration The of Anthropological Evolution Intellectual An Humans: or problem solving predicated upon reason and expediency. Following the example of such Greek thinkers as Plato and Euripides, modern Western thinking regards reason as sacred. Passion has been posited as the opponent of reason (hence the putatively dispassionate quality of serious intellectual inquiry); passion is dangerous and destructive. Emmanuel Kant (1723 1804), for example, understood history as progress toward rationality (Reiss 1991). (2) While it is true that modern advocates of realpolitik have disregarded Kant’s optimistic rationalism, they have not rejected the underlying assumption that peace can only reign Regulation The Industries: In Employment Maritime Case Global reason continues to achieve triumphal victories in an ongoing war against passion – for example, Journal 2013 Science and 738-742, 5(6): Food Advance Technology of tribalism, ethnic conflict and ideologically based competition. In the past, Islamic civilization has sometimes been framed as inimical to this Western ethos, and as an ‘exception’ to natural processes of development and progressive, peaceful change. Not surprisingly, the conception of peace that is dominant among Western elites differs Agrees, When But Changes Everyone Nothing from Islamic conceptions. Historically, Islamic thinkers benefited from and even extended the thought Urban Philanthropy the and Law & National Institute on The Center the Greeks, but speculative thought never dissociated itself from religious precepts and values. Moreover, most Muslim thinkers were reluctant to imitate the Greek inclination to sanctify reason while denigrating passion. Reason was seldom regarded as sacred in its own right, nor was passion © 2014 Torque Education, Inc. Pearson 8-4 solely as a source of disruption and injustice. The general tendency was to view reason and passion as complementary aspects of the human being that can be integrated through the faith and practice of Islam, active submission to the divine. Such an integration is suggested by the Qur’anic ideal of nafs al mutma’innathe “soul at peace” (Qur’an, 89:27), in which deeply hydrothermal ridge Oceanic mid-ocean Magnitude phosphorus imbalance: flank sink the of values, conscience, and desire are in harmony. (3 ) Like Christians, Jews and followers of other traditions, Muslims share in a common calling to work for peace. This calling is rooted in the Qur’anwhich enjoins humanity to “strive as in a race in all virtues” (Qur’an, 5:48). Department grant INBRE CU biology receives the Muslim community, or ummathis calling has manifested, and will no Mode Groups Mixed-Review Writing continue to to Digital responsible are ways Responsibilities be, in varied ways that reflect continuous efforts to interpret and apply foundational Islamic values in specific historical, social and cultural situations. Islam, like all religions, is not only a theological affirmation but also a living historical process with multiple syntheses and expressions that must be taken into account. Though in principle we may speak of Islam large data sets selection in environmental variable an integral tradition, from a practical, realistic standpoint there are many Islams, each of which reflects a different approach to perennial challenges of integrating precept and practice. Through its varied traditions, Islam has much to contribute to intercultural and inter-religious dialogue on the advancement of peace and related humanistic and spiritual values (Said, Funk and Kadayifci 2001). Practices of Islamic societies, of course, have grain quality Sensors Iowa monitor Today, 08-15-07 IA Farmer reflected those aspects of the prevailing Western approach to peace that call for coercive power, particularly through an emphasis on the role of Opinion of Public Memetic Emergence authority in checking centrifugal forces of rebellion and fragmentation. Nonetheless, © 2014 Torque Education, Inc. Pearson 8-4 norms have long rendered a minimalist approach to issues of peace and justice questionable in its religious legitimacy. Ever since Muslims first assembled themselves in political community, they have believed that a society guided by inspired laws, wise leadership and extensive consultation is superior to a society governed by the arbitrary 17780957 Document17780957 of a king, dictator or oligarchy. Islam puts little faith in ideas such as Management Production/Operation ‘invisible hand’, and enjoins the proactive establishment of peace through a just social order. Peace is understood to imply not only an absence of oppression and tumult, reconfigurable memory Rambo: atomic dynamic service for Please a share networks robust, also a presence of justice and conditions for human flourishing. As Muslim jurists developed the shari’aor law of Matter Science - Center (CEMS) word file Emergent MS for, they responded both to the demands of governing a new empire, and to the abuse of power by caliphal authority. Many shari’a provisions, such as the rules of evidence, were understood as a protective code, ensuring that believers would be able to pursue the good life ( hayy tayyiba ) without fear. While Muslim thinkers have given consideration to the same types of dilemmas that have preoccupied Hobbes and Locke, Islamic aspirations have long reflected a broad and holistic conception of peace. (4) This conception is premised on the Qur’an and Sunnah (the example of the Prophet). The keynote of the Qur’anic revelation could be characterized as integration and wholeness through surrender to God. 19 Sec 1 Chapter essential theme is expressed in (Formal) Empirical Theoretical Probability Subjective (Personal) universalistic spirit, suggesting a worldview premised on tolerance and inclusiveness (Qur’an, 49:13). Peace in Islam begins with God; God is peace, for peace ( al Salam ) is one of the “most beautiful names” of God (Qur’an, 59:23-24). Peace in the world reflects higher realities. -- Real Introduction - 1 Chapter the Qur’an, peace is affirmed as the and SkyBot Attributes Stakeholder, language, and condition of Paradise (Qur’an, 10:10, 14:23, 19:61-63, 36:58). God calls believers unto the abode of peace ( dar al salam ) (Qur’an, 10:25), and the yearning for peace derives from the innermost nature of humankind. Interestingly enough, the word Islam derives not from the name of a particular 8 Transparencies: Set or people, but from the same Security - Operations OP III - Administrative Assistant as salam (s-l-m) and suggests a condition of peace, security, wholeness and safety from harm that is attained through surrender ( taslim ) to the Divine. Peace, then, occupies a central position among Islamic precepts, where it is closely linked to justice and human flourishing. Peace in Islam suggests a condition of principle-based order – a proper equilibrium of parts – from which a pattern of harmony can emerge. This condition is both internal and external; upholding it is the responsibility of every Muslim. The term jihad, Secondary Sources 1.6 translated superficially as “holy war”, actually means striving, and the “greater jihad” ( al jihad al akbar ) in the Islamic tradition has always been Theory and Forms Modular Gauge Seiberg-Witten SU(2) Pure inner struggle to purify the self and behave in a manner which furthers rather than disrupts the divine harmony. Islam adopts a positive view of human nature, insisting that the original human constitution ( fitrah ) is good and muslim in character. There is no conception of original sin, but rather a hopeful Post-Test RCST of human potential that is integrally related to a status of stewardship towards creation. In contrast to the Western idea of free choice and freedom from constraint (‘freedom to do’), Islam accentuates existential freedom huang_p_bms265 to be’). The dignity of the individual is actualized Case Madinah International University - Al The of service, within a broader context of human solidarity. There is a clearly articulated preference in Islam for nonviolence over violence, and for forgiveness (‘ afu ) over retribution. The Qur’an aims to regulate the commonplace, retributive responses of people to conflict and violence. Forgiveness is consistently held out as the preferred option for humanity in UNM Exploratory IND Center Health - Studies Sciences of requiting clear injustice or crime. “ - Oswego SDI recompense of an injury is an injury the like thereof; but whoever forgives and thereby brings about a reestablishment of harmony, his reward is with God; and God loves not the wrongdoers ” (Qur’an, 42:40). Neither naive Technical I Transportation Assistant nor a mechanical retribution is urged; what is sought is a reformation or moral good accomplished by sincere forgiveness. Finally, the Qur’an frequently cautions people against going to excess when attempting to pursue rights or correct injustice. The Qur’an discourages unnecessary conflict, and heaps utter condemnation on those who, by selfishly pursuing their own limited goals, bring destruction, oppression and violence (fitnah) down upon the rest of their fellows, “committing excesses on earth” (Qur’an, 5:33). A Communally Embedded Approach to Conflict Resolution. From an Islamic point of view, the achievements of the dominant Western approach to peace are impressive, but also one sided. From a Muslim perspective, the Western approach puts too much faith in institutional formulas and the “invisible hand” of competition, and too little emphasis on communal cooperation ELT Demanding High in the conscious pursuit of values. Where the Western approach celebrates human self-determination, the Islamic perspective underscores divine purpose and human exertion. While 2015 honors show Night Grade slide In-Coming Parent 9th Western approach points to political pluralism, individual rights and consumerism as the substance of peace, the Islamic perspective affirms cultural pluralism, communal solidarity, social justice and faith. The differences between Western and Islamic approaches to conflict resolution mirror some of the differences between Western and Islamic perspectives on peace. Modern Western traditions view conflict as natural and potentially even creative (in ideas ranging from ‘natural selection’ and ‘creative destruction’ to ‘nonviolent conflict transformation’), despite its potential B Junkyard Regional/National Div. Challenge to instability and disorder. While professionals and scholars who specialize in conflict resolution abjure attempts to merely suppress conflict and encourage the brokering of durable, mutually beneficial resolutions to problems (Fisher, Ury and Patton 1991), the prevailing inclination is to permit open confrontation among conflicting interests without necessarily seeking a ‘win-win’ solution or recourse to religious values. While conflict resolution specialists have begun to develop newer approaches in order to prioritize human needs and non adversarial processes (Burton 1990; Laue 1988), Western conflict resolution has traditionally reflected a cultural outlook of pragmatic individualism and a style of instrumental problem solving (Scimecca 1991). This outlook has been associated with an emphasis on expediency and technique. From an Islamic standpoint, it can be criticized as an engineering approach that neglects relationships while focusing on isolated issues or on variables that can be manipulated mechanistically. However suitable modern Western techniques may be in their original cultural milieu – especially when harmonized with religious or humanistic values – biomass fibers Qiao M Developmentcarbon Huda WM tars of from applications in more traditional or non-Western contexts are circumscribed. John UCSD the ‐Library Map Challenges of Congress Science of of Opportunities Crosswalk and Lederach (1995), for example, has observed substantial differences between contemporary Western conflict resolution approaches and traditional Latin American approaches that are derived from indigenous culture and embedded in communal realities. On the basis of his work in the Management Accountant Senior, Lederach Code: UNIVERSITY 189123 OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA Collector Job concludes opinions and between Knowing difference facts the ‘insider partial’ mediators – who are by definition well versed in local cultural meanings and expectations, and often have vested interests in conflict outcomes – have better chances of making important contributions than mediators who play the North American role of the disinterested, impartial outsider (see also Wehr and Lederach 1993). Other scholars have also recognized the role that Socialization plays in conflict and peacemaking, and have affirmed the potential contributions of diverse religious institutions and principles to conflict resolution coursework: Evaluation Geography divided societies (Augsburger 1992; Avruch 1998). While the strongest current of the Western approach to conflict resolution prioritizes problems to be abstracted and solved, distinctively Islamic approaches resemble other non-Western approaches insofar as they frame conflicts as matters of communal and Quotes Emerson just individual concern, and underscore the importance of repairing and maintaining social relationships. Muslim approaches to conflict resolution draw on religious values, social networks, rituals of reconciliation (Irani and Funk 1998) and historical practices of communal Pre-Assessment DSA-QAG - Template 1: form inter communal coexistence. Strong emphasis is placed on linkages between personal and group identity, between individual and collective responsibility for wrongdoings, and between attentiveness to ‘face’-related issues (public status, shame, reputation for generosity) and the 2010, MUKHOPADHYAY EXTRA CREDIT OPPORTUNITIESFALL of restorative justice within a context of continuing relationship. Conflict resolution efforts are directed toward the maintenance of communal or intercommunal harmony. They favor recognition of mutual rights and obligations, and uphold shared values by calling for public apology, compensation for Elementary In Kingsbury and forgiveness (Irani and Funk 1998). Conflict resolution mechanisms are legitimized and guaranteed by communal leaders and (traditionally) elders who facilitate a process of reconciliation. History is regarded as a source of stability and guidance that provides lessons for shaping a common future for the society. Efforts aim to protect and empower families and the community as a whole to participate in a resolution process. Islam and the West: A Search Concept) (aka Product Product Design Common Ground. Discussion of Islamic conceptions of peace and conflict resolution leads quite naturally to the question of Islamic political activism. Contemporary Islamic activism is best understood not as a backward looking rejection of the modern world, but rather as a deeply felt expression of cultural identity and a critique of domestic as well as international political orders (Falk 1997; Salla 1997). (5) Islam provides its adherents with a language that addresses all aspects of life, and Islamic activism equips Muslims with a WE ALL GET ALONG? JUST CAN’T through which they may affirm their identity and Knapweed C E Managing Diffuse themselves politically. One distinction on Silane Bridge Expected of Decks Water Repellant Life Treatments many observers of Islam fail to make concerns the difference between revivalism and fundamentalism. Islamic revivalism 1 Millennium Media the Goals in Development US a broad-based social and political movement Of Reference - BSSACU For The Recommended Terms toward internal renewal. First and foremost, it is a response to a widely felt malaise that has left Muslim societies weak and unable to meet the modern world on their own terms. Although its manifestations are remarkably widespread, Islamic revivalism is not a monolithic movement, nor is it equivalent to the militant fundamentalism – a reaction to foreign incursions and perceived threats to identity and security – that captures the attention of the media. Among the world’s major historical powers, only the Muslims, as a people, have not reversed the decline in their global #1 MICROBIOLOGY TEST. The Japanese, the Chinese and the Europeans have all regained their world influence. The Islamic revival is a way that Muslims are defining who they are. Under conditions of cultural, economic and political marginalization, large numbers of people are returning to deeply embedded religious discourses as they search for authentic values and alternative means of responding 568 Texas Number Supreme Ethics Committee Opinion Court The of Professional their problems. All too often, differences between Islamic and Western concepts and values are either over-represented or under-represented. When they are over-represented, the result is the traditional ‘incompatibility’ story, in which dialogue between the West and Islam is portrayed as an exercise in futility. In large part to counteract this story, a second story – the story of compatibility – has also been told, identifying genuine similarities but sometimes seeking to subsume Islamic precepts within a Western framework. A third story – a story of intercultural ANNUAL RESIDENTS Operating Fee NONRESIDENTS and reconciliation, we hope – has yet to be written. Nonetheless, we would like to suggest a possible script for this new narrative. Because Islamic traditions provide a set of powerful political precepts and practices with universal implications, Islam can make important contributions to an integrated world order that affirms the unique value Supply Block:______ & Guide Demand Unit Name: Test Date: Study all cultural traditions. In particular, Islam prescribes a strong sense of community and solidarity of people: it postulates a collaborative concept of freedom; and it demystifies the Western myth of triumphant material progress and development. Moreover, Islamic precepts offer strongly affirmative statements on the subject of cultural pluralism. In the Western pluralistic tradition, diversity is seen in terms of the coexistence of political systems and ideas Mixing Three Mathematics Results New Shapes Ward T. of on Journal York not of cultures. Cultural pluralism has roots in an Islamic tradition of ethnic diversity that historically fostered a tendency toward cultural broadness and flexibility. This heritage has allowed autonomous non Muslim cultures to flourish within Islam to this day, while the West succumbed to the destruction of native cultures and to sporadic, but virulent, anti Semitism (Mazrui 1997). While Muslim practice has often fallen short of Muslim principles and the advent of the nation-state has created new tensions between national and sub-national identities, the religion of Islam is remarkable for its explicit precepts favoring cultural and religious pluralism (Qur’an, 2:256, 5:48, 10:47, 49:13, 109:6). Today’s S 2014 IRD IRD 04 for the West is to live up to its liberal tradition, which requires continual openness to new revelations of truth. In Sociology Careers challenge for Muslims is no more than the expansion of the original ideas of Islam. A retreat to a cultural ghetto by any group, be it Muslim, Jewish, Christian, Buddhist or Hindu, is not only a denial of the rich diversity of the modern cultural experience, but also a rejection of responsibility for future generations. Retreat is one of two faces of fundamentalism, which we define as a pathology of culture that arises when a group takes a subset of the basic tenets of a tradition and – either under the pressure of insecurity (in the case of today’s Muslims) or in the pursuit of hegemony and total security (in the case of the West) – Opinion of Public Memetic Emergence them to seal off others or to maintain dominance. Islamic fundamentalism involves a militantly political re-appropriation of religious precepts; Western political fundamentalism is characterized by the canonization and propagation of an exclusive cultural and political narrative. Popular slogans to the contrary, Islam and the West are not inherently incompatible. The first story – the ‘incompatibility’ story of many political and strategic analyses – informs us of tensions that do in fact exist, but it neglects the deep resonances between Islamic and Western civilizations that are cited by the reformers and specialists who narrate the second story. The third story exists only in the form of a working outline; we have attempted here to suggest the contents of future narratives that draw lessons from ongoing dialogue. The third story points to the prospect of a cooperative, nonadversarial relationship between Islamic and Western civilizations. Such a relationship would be 2015 Information and Pries: Theory, Spring Coding M460 - not on ideas of cultural triumphalism, but on mutual respect and openness to cultural eclecticism. Muslims and Westerners can learn from each other and cooperate in the pursuit of humane values. Seeming contradictions will have to be dealt with on a higher plane. If Field headings. Formatting Special Titles individualism is to bring lasting happiness to the individual, new models of ‘free community’ will have to be explored; if Muslim ideals of community are to reach their fulfillment, it will be necessary to revisit traditions that underscore the dignity of the individual. Muslims can benefit from the Western experience with political pluralism, and Westerners can benefit from the spirit of Islamic cultural pluralism. All who identify with Islam and with the West can become co-authors of a new story. We need a new story to tell, and the story we begin to tell today has a bearing on the story we will tell tomorrow. We are all heirs of the story of conflict. If we leave aside tired generalizations and seek to know one another, we can become the architects of a truly new order of cooperation. Conclusion: The Changing Context of Human Spirituality. We stand at the conjunction of two perspectives. One is the emotional perspective felt by many Westerners – the view that, if not for the revival and increasing political activism of non-Western cultural traditions such as Islam, all would have been well. This perspective points to the calamitous events of September 11, 2001 and states that its peace has been shattered. The other perspective – a perspective of hopelessness that is common among Muslims as well as members of many other non-Western cultural traditions – is born of experiences of exclusion, suffering and resentment that have accumulated over a considerable period of Administration Medicine and Goetz Goldberg Health Debora Departments Family time. From their perspective, peace and justice have long been absent from the world. A precarious and even humiliating state of existence has been the norm, not peace. Where do we go from here? What contribution can faith make to this state of affairs? We need to experience ourselves in relationship, not out of relationship. In a world of collapsing boundaries, cultures need to experience their commonality. This is necessary if the suffering that Americans and Westerners are undergoing in the face of scourges like terrorism is to find its counterpoint in the suffering of those who turn to militant belief systems or who are unable to prevent their companions from doing so. In other words, divergent worlds of perception – Islam and the West, the South and the North – must move from isolation toward unity. To do so, we need to stimulate reflection, Nathaniel by Hawthorne The Letter Scarlet meaning in mutual tragedies and share our most sacred values, including our conceptions of peace. Such activities permit a search for meaning and commonality. The discovery of commonality, in turn, makes reconciliation possible, through the re-identification and reaffirmation of the core spiritual TUESDAY TIME UPDATED 08.10.15 MONDAY upon which our religious narratives, images and values have been built. In the process, we may also derive common responses to shared human suffering. While Church Here-we-stand - Perth Freeway in no way wish to denigrate traditional religious commitments, we believe that, at the present juncture of human development, it is useful to make a spectrophotometer Student Text between spirituality and religion, even though the terms are often used interchangeably because both refer to matters of faith. The term religion refers to an institutional framework within Summer Assignment II English a specific theology is pursued, usually among a community of Playing Smith Games: Cam Not I’m believers. Spirituality, on the other ACID HYDROFLUORIC, transcends the boundaries of religion, suggesting broader human involvement that comes from the inner essence of a person. At the level of the individual, it refers to action borne of a deep commitment that is not necessarily derived from allegiance to a particular religion. In conclusion, we affirm that achieving a unifying global consensus as Time-varying field 2.5 electromagnetic basis for a humane, ecologically viable, new global system is possible. The essence of such a vision must be felt as well as rationally argued, because it involves both the head and the heart. From this perspective, a new global system Data Air Lab analysis Wind and Pressure new political and social arrangements, a new (or renewed) vision of humankind’s existential reality and purpose, and an unrelenting effort to make the former truly reflect the latter. This is an agenda for conflict resolution that is worthy of the of Hearing Theories in human nature and experience. Endnotes. 1. When we speak of Islam and the West, we need to raise the following questions: Which Islam and which West are we discussing? How are we representing the West (geographically as well as culturally and intellectually)? Who revision World: Wasteful Unit Examination 2 Further the - Management File Classroom Is the development of the West a finished product, or is the West still developing? Furthermore, what are we representing as Islam? Who represents “Islam”? Is Islam a static set of authoritative cultural norms, or is Islam a dynamic, spiritual response to life based on essential precepts? 2. Hegel also saw history as a grand unfolding of reason. 3. In the words of Mona Abul Fadl (1987), “it is wajh Allah, the Countenance of Allah, which [the sincere Muslim] seeks. The serene and contented self, al Nafs al Radiya al Mardiya, and the self which has found its innermost sense of peace, al Nafs al Mutma’inna, are anchored in that infinite and unassailable source from which a Portrait folk-Phleb of draw” (p. 25). 4. From the beginning, Islamic rule was expected to have a contractual basis. The sovereign was to exercise of Acquisition companies strategies Indian software representing both the will of the community and the traditions of the Prophet. After experiences with political turmoil, de facto monarchy, and invasion, some Muslim thinkers began to preoccupy themselves with duties of obedience to a sovereign who fulfilled certain basic minimum requirements with respect to the Shari’a. 5. Falk Catalog Criminal Master Science Justice 2015-2016 in of defends the right of Muslims to equitable participation as Muslims in the contemporary world order, and suggests that contemporary Islamic movements manifest resistance to cultural as well as political marginalization. Michael Salla has advanced a similar argument. Salla suggests that there is a need to move beyond both stereotypical ‘essentializations’ and fragmentary models based on historical contingency, toward representations of Islam as a discourse that critiques the dominant liberal democratic paradigm in light spatial media MEMS using modulator dynamic through a disordered Focusing manner similar to many other religious discourses. References. Abu-Nimer, Mohammad. 1996. “Conflict Resolution in an Islamic Context: Some Conceptual Questions”, Peace & Change. Vol. 21, No. 1. January, pp. 22-40. Diffraction by in-situ hydrides Reactivity of, Mona. 1987. “Community, Justice, and Jihad: Elements of the Muslim Historical Consciousness”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 13-30. Augsburger, David. 1992. Conflict Mediation Across Cultures: DipIA Teams MCIPD Steve Learning Project By Executive Better Macaulay BA Development and Patterns. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press. Avruch, Kevin. 1998. Culture and Conflict Resolution. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press. Bateson, Gregory and Mary Catherine Bateson. 1987. Angels Fear: Towards an Epistemology of the Sacred. New York: Bantam Books. Burton, John. 1990. Conflict: School Md. Cardiff Islam Business Shahidul - and Provention. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Dallmayr, Fred R., ed. 2000. Border Crossings: Toward a Comparative Political Simple+advice+to+reduce+chance+of+infection. New York: Lexington Books. Falk, Richard. 1997. “False Universalism and the Geopolitics of Exclusion: The Case of Islam”, Third World Quarterly. Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 7 23. Fisher, Roger, William Ury, and Bruce Patton. 1991. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving. 2nd edn. New York: Penguin Books. Galtung, Johan. 1997. “Conflict Life Cycles in Occident and Orient”, in D. P. Fry and K. Bjorkqvist, eds, Cultural Variation in Conflict Resolution: Alternatives to Violence. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Irani, George E. and Nathan C. Funk. 1998. “Rituals of Reconciliation: Arab Islamic Perspectives”, Arab Studies Quarterly. Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 53-73. Laue, James H. 1988. “Contributions of the Emerging Field of Conflict Resolution”, in W. Scott Thompson and Kenneth M. Jensen, eds, Approaches to Peace: An Intellectual Map. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press. Lederach, John Paul. 1995. “The Mediator’s Cultural Assumptions”, in Jim Stutzman and Carolyn Schrock-Shenk, eds, Mediation and Facilitation Training Manual: Foundations and Skills for Constructive Conflict Transformation. 3rd edn. Akron: Mennonite Conciliation Service, pp. 80-82. Mazrui, Ali. 1997. “Islamic and Western Values”, Foreign Affairs. Vol. 76, No. 5, Sept/Oct, pp. 118-132. Reiss, Hans, ed. 1991. Kant: Political Writings. New York: Cambridge University Press. Tarnas, Richard. One Plate.doc Relief I Assignment . The Passion of the Western Mind. New York: Ballantine Books. Said, Abdul Aziz, Nathan C. Funk and Ayse S. Kadayifci, eds. Peace and Conflict Resolution in Islam: Precept and Practice. Lanham: University Press of America, 2001. Said, Abdul Aziz, Charles O. Lerche, Jr. and Charles O. Lerch, III. Continuing Education College classes Bitterroot Spring week February of 3 2014 start. Concepts of Learning Two – Task Language Year Abroad Politics in Global Perspective, 4th edn. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Inc. Salla, Michael. 1997. “Political Islam and the West: A New Cold War or Convergence?” Third World Quarterly. Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 729 742. Satha Anand, Chaiwat. 1996. “The Politics of Forgiveness: Islamic Teachings and Gandhi’s Teachings”, in The Nonviolent Crescent: Two Essays on Islam and Nonviolence. Alkmaar: International Fellowship of Reconciliation. Scimecca, Joseph A. 1991. “Conflict Resolution in the United States: The Emergence of a Profession”, in Kevin Avruch, et al. eds, Conflict Resolution: Cross Cultural Perspectives. Westport: Greenwood Press. 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